Take 4+: Presentations on ‘Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning’ – Parts 1-8


“Lights, camera and … action – Take 4+!”

This post includes  a rework of all presentation of ‘Elements of Neural Networks and Deep  Learning Parts 1-8 ‘ since my earlier presentations had some missing parts, omissions and some occasional errors. So I have re-recorded all the presentations.
This series of presentation will do a deep-dive  into Deep Learning networks starting from the fundamentals. The equations required for performing learning in a L-layer Deep Learning network  are derived in detail, starting from the basics. Further, the presentations also discuss multi-class classification, regularization techniques, and gradient descent optimization methods in deep networks methods. Finally the presentations also touch on how  Deep Learning Networks can be tuned.

The corresponding implementations are available in vectorized R, Python and Octave are available in my book ‘Deep Learning from first principles:Second edition- In vectorized Python, R and Octave

1. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 1
This presentation introduces Neural Networks and Deep Learning. A look at history of Neural Networks, Perceptrons and why Deep Learning networks are required and concluding with a simple toy examples of a Neural Network and how they compute. This part also includes a small digression on the basics of Machine Learning and how the algorithm learns from a data set

2. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 2
This presentation takes logistic regression as an example and creates an equivalent 2 layer Neural network. The presentation also takes a look at forward & backward propagation and how the cost is minimized using gradient descent


The implementation of the discussed 2 layer Neural Network in vectorized R, Python and Octave are available in my post ‘Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 1‘

3. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 3
This 3rd part, discusses a primitive neural network with an input layer, output layer and a hidden layer. The neural network uses tanh activation in the hidden layer and a sigmoid activation in the output layer. The equations for forward and backward propagation are derived.


To see the implementations for the above discussed video see my post ‘Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 2

4. Elements of Neural Network and Deep Learning – Part 4
This presentation is a continuation of my 3rd presentation in which I derived the equations for a simple 3 layer Neural Network with 1 hidden layer. In this video presentation, I discuss step-by-step the derivations for a L-Layer, multi-unit Deep Learning Network, with any activation function g(z)


The implementations of L-Layer, multi-unit Deep Learning Network in vectorized R, Python and Octave are available in my post Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 3

5. Elements of Neural Network and Deep Learning – Part 5
This presentation discusses multi-class classification using the Softmax function. The detailed derivation for the Jacobian of the Softmax is discussed, and subsequently the derivative of cross-entropy loss is also discussed in detail. Finally the final set of equations for a Neural Network with multi-class classification is derived.


The corresponding implementations in vectorized R, Python and Octave are available in the following posts
a. Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 4
b. Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 5

6. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 6
This part discusses initialization methods specifically like He and Xavier. The presentation also focuses on how to prevent over-fitting using regularization. Lastly the dropout method of regularization is also discussed


The corresponding implementations in vectorized R, Python and Octave of the above discussed methods are available in my post Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 6

7. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 7
This presentation introduces exponentially weighted moving average and shows how this is used in different approaches to gradient descent optimization. The key techniques discussed are learning rate decay, momentum method, rmsprop and adam.

The equivalent implementations of the gradient descent optimization techniques in R, Python and Octave can be seen in my post Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 7

8. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 8
This last part touches on the method to adopt while tuning hyper-parameters in Deep Learning networks

Checkout my book ‘Deep Learning from first principles: Second Edition – In vectorized Python, R and Octave’. My book starts with the implementation of a simple 2-layer Neural Network and works its way to a generic L-Layer Deep Learning Network, with all the bells and whistles. The derivations have been discussed in detail. The code has been extensively commented and included in its entirety in the Appendix sections. My book is available on Amazon as paperback ($18.99) and in kindle version($9.99/Rs449).

This concludes this series of presentations on “Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning’

Also
1. My book ‘Practical Machine Learning in R and Python: Third edition’ on Amazon
2. Introducing cricpy:A python package to analyze performances of cricketers
3. Natural language processing: What would Shakespeare say?
4. Big Data-2: Move into the big league:Graduate from R to SparkR
5. Presentation on Wireless Technologies – Part 1
6. Introducing cricketr! : An R package to analyze performances of cricketers

To see all posts click Index of posts

My presentations on ‘Elements of Neural Networks & Deep Learning’ -Parts 6,7,8


This is the final set of presentations in my series ‘Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning’. This set follows the earlier 2 sets of presentations namely
1. My presentations on ‘Elements of Neural Networks & Deep Learning’ -Part1,2,3
2. My presentations on ‘Elements of Neural Networks & Deep Learning’ -Parts 4,5

In this final set of presentations I discuss initialization methods, regularization techniques including dropout. Next I also discuss gradient descent optimization methods like momentum, rmsprop, adam etc. Lastly, I briefly also touch on hyper-parameter tuning approaches. The corresponding implementations are available in vectorized R, Python and Octave are available in my book ‘Deep Learning from first principles:Second edition- In vectorized Python, R and Octave

1. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 6
This part discusses initialization methods specifically like He and Xavier. The presentation also focuses on how to prevent over-fitting using regularization. Lastly the dropout method of regularization is also discusses


The corresponding implementations in vectorized R, Python and Octave of the above discussed methods are available in my post Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 6

2. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 7
This presentation introduces exponentially weighted moving average and shows how this is used in different approaches to gradient descent optimization. The key techniques discussed are learning rate decay, momentum method, rmsprop and adam.


The equivalent implementations of the gradient descent optimization techniques in R, Python and Octave can be seen in my post Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 7

3. Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning – Part 8
This last part touches upon hyper-parameter tuning in Deep Learning networks


This concludes this series of presentations on “Elements of Neural Networks and Deep Learning’

Checkout my book ‘Deep Learning from first principles: Second Edition – In vectorized Python, R and Octave’. My book starts with the implementation of a simple 2-layer Neural Network and works its way to a generic L-Layer Deep Learning Network, with all the bells and whistles. The derivations have been discussed in detail. The code has been extensively commented and included in its entirety in the Appendix sections. My book is available on Amazon as paperback ($18.99) and and in kindle version($9.99/Rs449).

See also
1. My book ‘Practical Machine Learning in R and Python: Third edition’ on Amazon
2. Big Data-1: Move into the big league:Graduate from Python to Pyspark
3. My travels through the realms of Data Science, Machine Learning, Deep Learning and (AI)
4. Revisiting crimes against women in India
5. Introducing cricket package yorkr: Part 1- Beaten by sheer pace!
6. Deblurring with OpenCV: Weiner filter reloaded
7. Taking a closer look at Quantum gates and their operations

To see all posts click Index of posts

Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 7


Artificial Intelligence is the new electricity. – Prof Andrew Ng

Most of human and animal learning is unsupervised learning. If intelligence was a cake, unsupervised learning would be the cake, supervised learning would be the icing on the cake, and reinforcement learning would be the cherry on the cake. We know how to make the icing and the cherry, but we don’t know how to make the cake. We need to solve the unsupervised learning problem before we can even think of getting to true AI.  – Yann LeCun, March 14, 2016 (Facebook)

Introduction

In this post ‘Deep Learning from first principles with Python, R and Octave-Part 7’, I implement optimization methods used in Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) to speed up the convergence. Specifically I discuss and implement the following gradient descent optimization techniques

a.Vanilla Stochastic Gradient Descent
b.Learning rate decay
c. Momentum method
d. RMSProp
e. Adaptive Moment Estimation (Adam)

This post, further enhances my generic  L-Layer Deep Learning Network implementations in  vectorized Python, R and Octave to also include the Stochastic Gradient Descent optimization techniques. You can clone/download the code from Github at DeepLearning-Part7

You can view my video  presentation on Gradient Descent Optimization in Neural Networks 7

Incidentally, a good discussion of the various optimizations methods used in Stochastic Gradient Optimization techniques can be seen at Sebastian Ruder’s blog

Note: In the vectorized Python, R and Octave implementations below only a  1024 random training samples were used. This was to reduce the computation time. You are free to use the entire data set (60000 training data) for the computation.

This post is largely based of on Prof Andrew Ng’s Deep Learning Specialization.  All the above optimization techniques for Stochastic Gradient Descent are based on the technique of exponentially weighted average method. So for example if we had some time series data \theta_{1},\theta_{2},\theta_{3}... \theta_{t} then we we can represent the exponentially average value at time ‘t’ as a sequence of the the previous value v_{t-1} and \theta_{t} as shown below
v_{t} = \beta v_{t-1} + (1-\beta)\theta_{t}

Here v_{t} represent the average of the data set over \frac {1}{1-\beta}  By choosing different values of \beta, we can average over a larger or smaller number of the data points.
We can write the equations as follows
v_{t} = \beta v_{t-1} + (1-\beta)\theta_{t}
v_{t-1} = \beta v_{t-2} + (1-\beta)\theta_{t-1}
v_{t-2} = \beta v_{t-3} + (1-\beta)\theta_{t-2}
and
v_{t-k} = \beta v_{t-(k+1))} + (1-\beta)\theta_{t-k}
By substitution we have
v_{t} = (1-\beta)\theta_{t} + \beta v_{t-1}
v_{t} = (1-\beta)\theta_{t} + \beta ((1-\beta)\theta_{t-1}) + \beta v_{t-2}
v_{t} = (1-\beta)\theta_{t} + \beta ((1-\beta)\theta_{t-1}) + \beta ((1-\beta)\theta_{t-2}+ \beta v_{t-3} )

Hence it can be seen that the v_{t} is the weighted sum over the previous values \theta_{k}, which is an exponentially decaying function.

Checkout my book ‘Deep Learning from first principles: Second Edition – In vectorized Python, R and Octave’. My book starts with the implementation of a simple 2-layer Neural Network and works its way to a generic L-Layer Deep Learning Network, with all the bells and whistles. The derivations have been discussed in detail. The code has been extensively commented and included in its entirety in the Appendix sections. My book is available on Amazon as paperback ($18.99) and in kindle version($9.99/Rs449).

You may also like my companion book “Practical Machine Learning with R and Python- Machine Learning in stereo” available in Amazon in paperback($9.99) and Kindle($6.99) versions. This book is ideal for a quick reference of the various ML functions and associated measurements in both R and Python which are essential to delve deep into Deep Learning.

1.1a. Stochastic Gradient Descent (Vanilla) – Python

import numpy as np
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import sklearn.linear_model
import pandas as pd
import sklearn
import sklearn.datasets
exec(open("DLfunctions7.py").read())
exec(open("load_mnist.py").read())

# Read the training data
training=list(read(dataset='training',path=".\\mnist"))
test=list(read(dataset='testing',path=".\\mnist"))
lbls=[]
pxls=[]
for i in range(60000):
       l,p=training[i]
       lbls.append(l)
       pxls.append(p)
labels= np.array(lbls)
pixels=np.array(pxls)       
y=labels.reshape(-1,1)
X=pixels.reshape(pixels.shape[0],-1)
X1=X.T
Y1=y.T

# Create  a list of 1024 random numbers.
permutation = list(np.random.permutation(2**10))
# Subset 16384 from the data
X2 = X1[:, permutation]
Y2 = Y1[:, permutation].reshape((1,2**10))
# Set the layer dimensions  
layersDimensions=[784, 15,9,10] 
# Perform SGD with regular gradient descent
parameters = L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X2, Y2, layersDimensions, hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
                                   outputActivationFunc="softmax",learningRate = 0.01 ,
                                   optimizer="gd",
                                   mini_batch_size =512, num_epochs = 1000, print_cost = True,figure="fig1.png")

1.1b. Stochastic Gradient Descent (Vanilla) – R

source("mnist.R")
source("DLfunctions7.R")
#Load and read MNIST data
load_mnist() 
x <- t(train$x)
X <- x[,1:60000]
y <-train$y
y1 <- y[1:60000]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y=t(y2)

# Subset 1024 random samples from MNIST 
permutation = c(sample(2^10))
# Randomly shuffle the training data
X1 = X[, permutation]
y1 = Y[1, permutation]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y1=t(y2)
# Set layer dimensions
layersDimensions=c(784, 15,9, 10) 
# Perform SGD with regular gradient descent
retvalsSGD= L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X1, Y1, layersDimensions,
                            hiddenActivationFunc='tanh',
                            outputActivationFunc="softmax",
                            learningRate = 0.05,
                            optimizer="gd",
                            mini_batch_size = 512, 
                            num_epochs = 5000, 
                            print_cost = True)
#Plot the cost vs iterations
iterations <- seq(0,5000,1000)
costs=retvalsSGD$costs
df=data.frame(iterations,costs)
ggplot(df,aes(x=iterations,y=costs)) + geom_point() + geom_line(color="blue") +
 ggtitle("Costs vs no of epochs") + xlab("No of epochss") + ylab("Cost")

1.1c. Stochastic Gradient Descent (Vanilla) – Octave

source("DL7functions.m")
#Load and read MNIST
load('./mnist/mnist.txt.gz'); 
#Create a random permutatation from 1024
permutation = randperm(1024);
disp(length(permutation));

# Use this 1024 as the batch
X=trainX(permutation,:);
Y=trainY(permutation,:);

# Set layer dimensions
layersDimensions=[784, 15, 9, 10];
# Perform SGD with regular gradient descent
[weights biases costs]=L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X', Y', layersDimensions,
 hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
 outputActivationFunc="softmax",
 learningRate = 0.005,
 lrDecay=true, 
 decayRate=1,
 lambd=0,
 keep_prob=1,
 optimizer="gd",
 beta=0.9,
 beta1=0.9,
 beta2=0.999,
 epsilon=10^-8,
 mini_batch_size = 512, 
 num_epochs = 5000);

plotCostVsEpochs(5000,costs);

2.1. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Learning rate decay

Since in Stochastic Gradient Descent,with  each epoch, we use slight different samples, the gradient descent algorithm, oscillates across the ravines and wanders around the minima, when a fixed learning rate is used. In this technique of ‘learning rate decay’ the learning rate is slowly decreased with the number of epochs and becomes smaller and smaller, so that gradient descent can take smaller steps towards the minima.

There are several techniques employed in learning rate decay

a) Exponential decay: \alpha = decayRate^{epochNum} *\alpha_{0}
b) 1/t decay : \alpha = \frac{\alpha_{0}}{1 + decayRate*epochNum}
c) \alpha = \frac {decayRate}{\sqrt(epochNum)}*\alpha_{0}

In my implementation I have used the ‘exponential decay’. The code snippet for Python is shown below

if lrDecay == True:
   learningRate = np.power(decayRate,(num_epochs/1000)) * learningRate

2.1a. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Learning rate decay – Python

import numpy as np
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import sklearn.linear_model
import pandas as pd
import sklearn
import sklearn.datasets
exec(open("DLfunctions7.py").read())
exec(open("load_mnist.py").read())

# Read the MNIST data
training=list(read(dataset='training',path=".\\mnist"))
test=list(read(dataset='testing',path=".\\mnist"))
lbls=[]
pxls=[]
for i in range(60000):
       l,p=training[i]
       lbls.append(l)
       pxls.append(p)
labels= np.array(lbls)
pixels=np.array(pxls)       
y=labels.reshape(-1,1)
X=pixels.reshape(pixels.shape[0],-1)
X1=X.T
Y1=y.T

# Create  a list of random numbers of 1024
permutation = list(np.random.permutation(2**10))
# Subset 16384 from the data
X2 = X1[:, permutation]
Y2 = Y1[:, permutation].reshape((1,2**10))
# Set layer dimensions
layersDimensions=[784, 15,9,10] 
# Perform SGD with learning rate decay
parameters = L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X2, Y2, layersDimensions, hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
                                   outputActivationFunc="softmax",
                                   learningRate = 0.01 , lrDecay=True, decayRate=0.9999,
                                   optimizer="gd",
                                   mini_batch_size =512, num_epochs = 1000, print_cost = True,figure="fig2.png")

2.1b. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Learning rate decay – R

source("mnist.R")
source("DLfunctions7.R")
# Read and load MNIST
load_mnist()
x <- t(train$x)
X <- x[,1:60000]
y <-train$y
y1 <- y[1:60000]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y=t(y2)

# Subset 1024 random samples from MNIST 
permutation = c(sample(2^10))
# Randomly shuffle the training data
X1 = X[, permutation]
y1 = Y[1, permutation]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y1=t(y2)
# Set layer dimensions
layersDimensions=c(784, 15,9, 10) 
# Perform SGD with Learning rate decay
retvalsSGD= L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X1, Y1, layersDimensions,
                                  hiddenActivationFunc='tanh',
                                  outputActivationFunc="softmax",
                                  learningRate = 0.05,
                                  lrDecay=TRUE,
                                  decayRate=0.9999,
                                  optimizer="gd",
                                  mini_batch_size = 512, 
                                  num_epochs = 5000, 
                                  print_cost = True)
#Plot the cost vs iterations
iterations <- seq(0,5000,1000)
costs=retvalsSGD$costs
df=data.frame(iterations,costs)
ggplot(df,aes(x=iterations,y=costs)) + geom_point() + geom_line(color="blue") +
 ggtitle("Costs vs number of epochs") + xlab("No of epochs") + ylab("Cost")

2.1c. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Learning rate decay – Octave

source("DL7functions.m")
#Load and read MNIST
load('./mnist/mnist.txt.gz'); 
#Create a random permutatation from 1024
permutation = randperm(1024);
disp(length(permutation));

# Use this 1024 as the batch
X=trainX(permutation,:);
Y=trainY(permutation,:);

# Set layer dimensions
layersDimensions=[784, 15, 9, 10];
# Perform SGD with regular Learning rate decay
[weights biases costs]=L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X', Y', layersDimensions,
 hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
 outputActivationFunc="softmax",
 learningRate = 0.01,
 lrDecay=true, 
 decayRate=0.999,
 lambd=0,
 keep_prob=1,
 optimizer="gd",
 beta=0.9,
 beta1=0.9,
 beta2=0.999,
 epsilon=10^-8,
 mini_batch_size = 512, 
 num_epochs = 5000);
plotCostVsEpochs(5000,costs)

3.1. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Momentum

Stochastic Gradient Descent with Momentum uses the exponentially weighted average method discusses above and more generally moves faster into the ravine than across it. The equations are
v_{dW}^l = \beta v_{dW}^l + (1-\beta)dW^{l}
v_{db}^l = \beta v_{db}^l + (1-\beta)db^{l}
W^{l} = W^{l} - \alpha v_{dW}^l
b^{l} = b^{l} - \alpha v_{db}^l where
v_{dW} and v_{db} are the momentum terms which are exponentially weighted with the corresponding gradients ‘dW’ and ‘db’ at the corresponding layer ‘l’ The code snippet for Stochastic Gradient Descent with momentum in R is shown below

# Perform Gradient Descent with momentum
# Input : Weights and biases
#       : beta
#       : gradients
#       : learning rate
#       : outputActivationFunc - Activation function at hidden layer sigmoid/softmax
#output : Updated weights after 1 iteration
gradientDescentWithMomentum  <- function(parameters, gradients,v, beta, learningRate,outputActivationFunc="sigmoid"){

    L = length(parameters)/2 # number of layers in the neural network    
    # Update rule for each parameter. Use a for loop.
    for(l in 1:(L-1)){
        # Compute velocities
        # v['dWk'] = beta *v['dWk'] + (1-beta)*dWk
        v[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] = beta*v[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] + 
                   (1-beta) * gradients[[paste('dW',l,sep="")]]
        v[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] = beta*v[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta) * gradients[[paste('db',l,sep="")]]
        
        parameters[[paste("W",l,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("W",l,sep="")]] -
            learningRate* v[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] 
        parameters[[paste("b",l,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("b",l,sep="")]] -
            learningRate* v[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] 
    }    
    # Compute for the Lth layer
    if(outputActivationFunc=="sigmoid"){
        v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = beta*v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta) * gradients[[paste('dW',L,sep="")]]
        v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = beta*v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta) * gradients[[paste('db',L,sep="")]]
        
        parameters[[paste("W",L,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("W",L,sep="")]] -
            learningRate* v[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]]  
        parameters[[paste("b",L,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("b",L,sep="")]] -
            learningRate* v[[paste("db",l, sep="")]]
        
    }else if (outputActivationFunc=="softmax"){
        v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = beta*v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta) * t(gradients[[paste('dW',L,sep="")]])
        v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = beta*v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta) * t(gradients[[paste('db',L,sep="")]])       
        parameters[[paste("W",L,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("W",L,sep="")]] -
            learningRate* t(gradients[[paste("dW",L,sep="")]])
        parameters[[paste("b",L,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("b",L,sep="")]] -
            learningRate* t(gradients[[paste("db",L,sep="")]])
    }
    return(parameters)
}

3.1a. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Momentum- Python

import numpy as np
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import sklearn.linear_model
import pandas as pd
import sklearn
import sklearn.datasets
# Read and load data
exec(open("DLfunctions7.py").read())
exec(open("load_mnist.py").read())
training=list(read(dataset='training',path=".\\mnist"))
test=list(read(dataset='testing',path=".\\mnist"))
lbls=[]
pxls=[]
for i in range(60000):
       l,p=training[i]
       lbls.append(l)
       pxls.append(p)
labels= np.array(lbls)
pixels=np.array(pxls)       
y=labels.reshape(-1,1)
X=pixels.reshape(pixels.shape[0],-1)
X1=X.T
Y1=y.T

# Create  a list of random numbers of 1024
permutation = list(np.random.permutation(2**10))
# Subset 16384 from the data
X2 = X1[:, permutation]
Y2 = Y1[:, permutation].reshape((1,2**10))
layersDimensions=[784, 15,9,10] 
# Perform SGD with momentum
parameters = L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X2, Y2, layersDimensions, hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
                                   outputActivationFunc="softmax",learningRate = 0.01 ,
                                   optimizer="momentum", beta=0.9,
                                   mini_batch_size =512, num_epochs = 1000, print_cost = True,figure="fig3.png")

3.1b. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Momentum- R

source("mnist.R")
source("DLfunctions7.R")
load_mnist()
x <- t(train$x)
X <- x[,1:60000]
y <-train$y
y1 <- y[1:60000]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y=t(y2)

# Subset 1024 random samples from MNIST 
permutation = c(sample(2^10))
# Randomly shuffle the training data
X1 = X[, permutation]
y1 = Y[1, permutation]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y1=t(y2)
layersDimensions=c(784, 15,9, 10) 
# Perform SGD with momentum
retvalsSGD= L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X1, Y1, layersDimensions,
                                  hiddenActivationFunc='tanh',
                                  outputActivationFunc="softmax",
                                  learningRate = 0.05,
                                  optimizer="momentum",
                                  beta=0.9,
                                  mini_batch_size = 512, 
                                  num_epochs = 5000, 
                                  print_cost = True)

#Plot the cost vs iterations
iterations <- seq(0,5000,1000)
costs=retvalsSGD$costs
df=data.frame(iterations,costs)
ggplot(df,aes(x=iterations,y=costs)) + geom_point() + geom_line(color="blue") +
 ggtitle("Costs vs number of epochs") + xlab("No of epochs") + ylab("Cost")

3.1c. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Momentum- Octave

source("DL7functions.m")
#Load and read MNIST
load('./mnist/mnist.txt.gz'); 
#Create a random permutatation from 60K
permutation = randperm(1024);
disp(length(permutation));

# Use this 1024 as the batch
X=trainX(permutation,:);
Y=trainY(permutation,:);

# Set layer dimensions
layersDimensions=[784, 15, 9, 10];
# Perform SGD with Momentum
[weights biases costs]=L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X', Y', layersDimensions,
 hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
 outputActivationFunc="softmax",
 learningRate = 0.01,
 lrDecay=false, 
 decayRate=1,
 lambd=0,
 keep_prob=1,
 optimizer="momentum",
 beta=0.9,
 beta1=0.9,
 beta2=0.999,
 epsilon=10^-8,
 mini_batch_size = 512, 
 num_epochs = 5000);

plotCostVsEpochs(5000,costs)

4.1. Stochastic Gradient Descent with RMSProp

Stochastic Gradient Descent with RMSProp tries to move faster towards the minima while dampening the oscillations across the ravine.
The equations are

s_{dW}^l = \beta_{1} s_{dW}^l + (1-\beta_{1})(dW^{l})^{2}
s_{db}^l = \beta_{1} s_{db}^l + (1-\beta_{1})(db^{l})^2
W^{l} = W^{l} - \frac {\alpha s_{dW}^l}{\sqrt (s_{dW}^l + \epsilon) }
b^{l} = b^{l} - \frac {\alpha s_{db}^l}{\sqrt (s_{db}^l + \epsilon) }
where s_{dW} and s_{db} are the RMSProp terms which are exponentially weighted with the corresponding gradients ‘dW’ and ‘db’ at the corresponding layer ‘l’

The code snippet in Octave is shown below

# Update parameters with RMSProp
# Input : parameters
#       : gradients
#       : s
#       : beta
#       : learningRate
#       : 
#output : Updated parameters RMSProp
function [weights biases] = gradientDescentWithRMSProp(weights, biases,gradsDW,gradsDB, sdW, sdB, beta1, epsilon, learningRate,outputActivationFunc="sigmoid")
    L = size(weights)(2); # number of layers in the neural network
    # Update rule for each parameter. 
    for l=1:(L-1)
        sdW{l} =  beta1*sdW{l} + (1 -beta1) * gradsDW{l} .* gradsDW{l};
        sdB{l} =  beta1*sdB{l} + (1 -beta1) * gradsDB{l} .* gradsDB{l};
        weights{l} = weights{l} - learningRate* gradsDW{l} ./ sqrt(sdW{l} + epsilon); 
        biases{l} = biases{l} -  learningRate* gradsDB{l} ./ sqrt(sdB{l} + epsilon);
    endfor
  
    if (strcmp(outputActivationFunc,"sigmoid"))
        sdW{L} =  beta1*sdW{L} + (1 -beta1) * gradsDW{L} .* gradsDW{L};
        sdB{L} =  beta1*sdB{L} + (1 -beta1) * gradsDB{L} .* gradsDB{L};
        weights{L} = weights{L} -learningRate* gradsDW{L} ./ sqrt(sdW{L} +epsilon); 
        biases{L} = biases{L} -learningRate* gradsDB{L} ./ sqrt(sdB{L} + epsilon);
     elseif (strcmp(outputActivationFunc,"softmax"))
        sdW{L} =  beta1*sdW{L} + (1 -beta1) * gradsDW{L}' .* gradsDW{L}';
        sdB{L} =  beta1*sdB{L} + (1 -beta1) * gradsDB{L}' .* gradsDB{L}';
        weights{L} = weights{L} -learningRate* gradsDW{L}' ./ sqrt(sdW{L} +epsilon); 
        biases{L} = biases{L} -learningRate* gradsDB{L}' ./ sqrt(sdB{L} + epsilon);
     endif   
end

4.1a. Stochastic Gradient Descent with RMSProp – Python

import numpy as np
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import sklearn.linear_model
import pandas as pd
import sklearn
import sklearn.datasets
exec(open("DLfunctions7.py").read())
exec(open("load_mnist.py").read())

# Read and load MNIST
training=list(read(dataset='training',path=".\\mnist"))
test=list(read(dataset='testing',path=".\\mnist"))
lbls=[]
pxls=[]
for i in range(60000):
       l,p=training[i]
       lbls.append(l)
       pxls.append(p)
labels= np.array(lbls)
pixels=np.array(pxls)       
y=labels.reshape(-1,1)
X=pixels.reshape(pixels.shape[0],-1)
X1=X.T
Y1=y.T

print("X1=",X1.shape)
print("y1=",Y1.shape)

# Create  a list of random numbers of 1024
permutation = list(np.random.permutation(2**10))
# Subset 16384 from the data
X2 = X1[:, permutation]
Y2 = Y1[:, permutation].reshape((1,2**10))
  
layersDimensions=[784, 15,9,10] 
# Use SGD with RMSProp
parameters = L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X2, Y2, layersDimensions, hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
                                   outputActivationFunc="softmax",learningRate = 0.01 ,
                                   optimizer="rmsprop", beta1=0.7, epsilon=1e-8,
                                   mini_batch_size =512, num_epochs = 1000, print_cost = True,figure="fig4.png")

4.1b. Stochastic Gradient Descent with RMSProp – R

source("mnist.R")
source("DLfunctions7.R")
load_mnist()
x <- t(train$x)
X <- x[,1:60000]
y <-train$y
y1 <- y[1:60000]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y=t(y2)

# Subset 1024 random samples from MNIST 
permutation = c(sample(2^10))
# Randomly shuffle the training data
X1 = X[, permutation]
y1 = Y[1, permutation]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y1=t(y2)
layersDimensions=c(784, 15,9, 10) 
#Perform SGD with RMSProp
retvalsSGD= L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X1, Y1, layersDimensions,
                                  hiddenActivationFunc='tanh',
                                  outputActivationFunc="softmax",
                                  learningRate = 0.001,
                                  optimizer="rmsprop",
                                  beta1=0.9,
                                  epsilon=10^-8,
                                  mini_batch_size = 512, 
                                  num_epochs = 5000 , 
                                  print_cost = True)
#Plot the cost vs iterations
iterations <- seq(0,5000,1000)
costs=retvalsSGD$costs
df=data.frame(iterations,costs)
ggplot(df,aes(x=iterations,y=costs)) + geom_point() + geom_line(color="blue") +
 ggtitle("Costs vs number of epochs") + xlab("No of epochs") + ylab("Cost")

4.1c. Stochastic Gradient Descent with RMSProp – Octave

source("DL7functions.m")
load('./mnist/mnist.txt.gz'); 
#Create a random permutatation from 1024
permutation = randperm(1024);

# Use this 1024 as the batch
X=trainX(permutation,:);
Y=trainY(permutation,:);

# Set layer dimensions
layersDimensions=[784, 15, 9, 10];
#Perform SGD with RMSProp
[weights biases costs]=L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X', Y', layersDimensions,
 hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
 outputActivationFunc="softmax",
 learningRate = 0.005,
 lrDecay=false, 
 decayRate=1,
 lambd=0,
 keep_prob=1,
 optimizer="rmsprop",
 beta=0.9,
 beta1=0.9,
 beta2=0.999,
 epsilon=1,
 mini_batch_size = 512, 
 num_epochs = 5000);
plotCostVsEpochs(5000,costs)

5.1. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Adam

Adaptive Moment Estimate is a combination of the momentum (1st moment) and RMSProp(2nd moment). The equations for Adam are below
v_{dW}^l = \beta_{1} v_{dW}^l + (1-\beta_{1})dW^{l}
v_{db}^l = \beta_{1} v_{db}^l + (1-\beta_{1})db^{l}
The bias corrections for the 1st moment
vCorrected_{dW}^l= \frac {v_{dW}^l}{1 - \beta_{1}^{t}}
vCorrected_{db}^l= \frac {v_{db}^l}{1 - \beta_{1}^{t}}

Similarly the moving average for the 2nd moment- RMSProp
s_{dW}^l = \beta_{2} s_{dW}^l + (1-\beta_{2})(dW^{l})^2
s_{db}^l = \beta_{2} s_{db}^l + (1-\beta_{2})(db^{l})^2
The bias corrections for the 2nd moment
sCorrected_{dW}^l= \frac {s_{dW}^l}{1 - \beta_{2}^{t}}
sCorrected_{db}^l= \frac {s_{db}^l}{1 - \beta_{2}^{t}}

The Adam Gradient Descent is given by
W^{l} = W^{l} - \frac {\alpha vCorrected_{dW}^l}{\sqrt (s_{dW}^l + \epsilon) }
b^{l} = b^{l} - \frac {\alpha vCorrected_{db}^l}{\sqrt (s_{db}^l + \epsilon) }
The code snippet of Adam in R is included below

# Perform Gradient Descent with Adam
# Input : Weights and biases
#       : beta1
#       : epsilon
#       : gradients
#       : learning rate
#       : outputActivationFunc - Activation function at hidden layer sigmoid/softmax
#output : Updated weights after 1 iteration
gradientDescentWithAdam  <- function(parameters, gradients,v, s, t, 
                        beta1=0.9, beta2=0.999, epsilon=10^-8, learningRate=0.1,outputActivationFunc="sigmoid"){
    
    L = length(parameters)/2 # number of layers in the neural network
    v_corrected <- list()
    s_corrected <- list()
    # Update rule for each parameter. Use a for loop.
    for(l in 1:(L-1)){
        # v['dWk'] = beta *v['dWk'] + (1-beta)*dWk
        v[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] = beta1*v[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta1) * gradients[[paste('dW',l,sep="")]]
        v[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] = beta1*v[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta1) * gradients[[paste('db',l,sep="")]]
        
        
        # Compute bias-corrected first moment estimate. 
        v_corrected[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] = v[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]]/(1-beta1^t)
        v_corrected[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] = v[[paste("db",l, sep="")]]/(1-beta1^t)
               
        # Element wise multiply of gradients
        s[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] = beta2*s[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta2) * gradients[[paste('dW',l,sep="")]] * gradients[[paste('dW',l,sep="")]]
        s[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] = beta2*s[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta2) * gradients[[paste('db',l,sep="")]] * gradients[[paste('db',l,sep="")]]
        
        # Compute bias-corrected second moment estimate. 
        s_corrected[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]] = s[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]]/(1-beta2^t)
        s_corrected[[paste("db",l, sep="")]] = s[[paste("db",l, sep="")]]/(1-beta2^t)
        
        # Update parameters. 
        d1=sqrt(s_corrected[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]]+epsilon)
        d2=sqrt(s_corrected[[paste("db",l, sep="")]]+epsilon)        
                
        parameters[[paste("W",l,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("W",l,sep="")]] -
            learningRate * v_corrected[[paste("dW",l, sep="")]]/d1
        parameters[[paste("b",l,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("b",l,sep="")]] -
            learningRate*v_corrected[[paste("db",l, sep="")]]/d2
    }    
    # Compute for the Lth layer
    if(outputActivationFunc=="sigmoid"){
        v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = beta1*v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta1) * gradients[[paste('dW',L,sep="")]]
        v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = beta1*v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta1) * gradients[[paste('db',L,sep="")]]
                
        # Compute bias-corrected first moment estimate. 
        v_corrected[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]]/(1-beta1^t)
        v_corrected[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]]/(1-beta1^t)
                
        # Element wise multiply of gradients
        s[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = beta2*s[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta2) * gradients[[paste('dW',L,sep="")]] * gradients[[paste('dW',L,sep="")]]
        s[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = beta2*s[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta2) * gradients[[paste('db',L,sep="")]] * gradients[[paste('db',L,sep="")]]
        
        # Compute bias-corrected second moment estimate. 
        s_corrected[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = s[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]]/(1-beta2^t)
        s_corrected[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = s[[paste("db",L, sep="")]]/(1-beta2^t)
        
        # Update parameters. 
        d1=sqrt(s_corrected[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]]+epsilon)
        d2=sqrt(s_corrected[[paste("db",L, sep="")]]+epsilon)  
        
        parameters[[paste("W",L,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("W",L,sep="")]] -
            learningRate * v_corrected[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]]/d1
        parameters[[paste("b",L,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("b",L,sep="")]] -
            learningRate*v_corrected[[paste("db",L, sep="")]]/d2
        
    }else if (outputActivationFunc=="softmax"){
        v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = beta1*v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta1) * t(gradients[[paste('dW',L,sep="")]])
        v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = beta1*v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta1) * t(gradients[[paste('db',L,sep="")]])
                
        # Compute bias-corrected first moment estimate. 
        v_corrected[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = v[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]]/(1-beta1^t)
        v_corrected[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = v[[paste("db",L, sep="")]]/(1-beta1^t)        
        
        # Element wise multiply of gradients
        s[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = beta2*s[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta2) * t(gradients[[paste('dW',L,sep="")]]) * t(gradients[[paste('dW',L,sep="")]])
        s[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = beta2*s[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] + 
            (1-beta2) * t(gradients[[paste('db',L,sep="")]]) * t(gradients[[paste('db',L,sep="")]])
        
        # Compute bias-corrected second moment estimate. 
        s_corrected[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]] = s[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]]/(1-beta2^t)
        s_corrected[[paste("db",L, sep="")]] = s[[paste("db",L, sep="")]]/(1-beta2^t)
        
        # Update parameters. 
        d1=sqrt(s_corrected[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]]+epsilon)
        d2=sqrt(s_corrected[[paste("db",L, sep="")]]+epsilon) 
        
        parameters[[paste("W",L,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("W",L,sep="")]] -
            learningRate * v_corrected[[paste("dW",L, sep="")]]/d1
        parameters[[paste("b",L,sep="")]] = parameters[[paste("b",L,sep="")]] -
            learningRate*v_corrected[[paste("db",L, sep="")]]/d2
    }
    return(parameters)
}

5.1a. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Adam – Python

import numpy as np
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import sklearn.linear_model
import pandas as pd
import sklearn
import sklearn.datasets
exec(open("DLfunctions7.py").read())
exec(open("load_mnist.py").read())
training=list(read(dataset='training',path=".\\mnist"))
test=list(read(dataset='testing',path=".\\mnist"))
lbls=[]
pxls=[]
print(len(training))
#for i in range(len(training)):
for i in range(60000):
       l,p=training[i]
       lbls.append(l)
       pxls.append(p)
labels= np.array(lbls)
pixels=np.array(pxls)       
y=labels.reshape(-1,1)
X=pixels.reshape(pixels.shape[0],-1)
X1=X.T
Y1=y.T


# Create  a list of random numbers of 1024
permutation = list(np.random.permutation(2**10))
# Subset 16384 from the data
X2 = X1[:, permutation]
Y2 = Y1[:, permutation].reshape((1,2**10))
layersDimensions=[784, 15,9,10] 
#Perform SGD with Adam optimization
parameters = L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X2, Y2, layersDimensions, hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
                                   outputActivationFunc="softmax",learningRate = 0.01 ,
                                   optimizer="adam", beta1=0.9, beta2=0.9, epsilon = 1e-8,
                                   mini_batch_size =512, num_epochs = 1000, print_cost = True, figure="fig5.png")

5.1b. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Adam – R

source("mnist.R")
source("DLfunctions7.R")
load_mnist()
x <- t(train$x)
X <- x[,1:60000]
y <-train$y
y1 <- y[1:60000]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y=t(y2)

# Subset 1024 random samples from MNIST 
permutation = c(sample(2^10))
# Randomly shuffle the training data
X1 = X[, permutation]
y1 = Y[1, permutation]
y2 <- as.matrix(y1)
Y1=t(y2)
layersDimensions=c(784, 15,9, 10) 
#Perform SGD with Adam
retvalsSGD= L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X1, Y1, layersDimensions,
                                  hiddenActivationFunc='tanh',
                                  outputActivationFunc="softmax",
                                  learningRate = 0.005,
                                  optimizer="adam",
                                  beta1=0.7,
                                  beta2=0.9,
                                  epsilon=10^-8,
                                  mini_batch_size = 512, 
                                  num_epochs = 5000 , 
                                  print_cost = True)
#Plot the cost vs iterations
iterations <- seq(0,5000,1000)
costs=retvalsSGD$costs
df=data.frame(iterations,costs)
ggplot(df,aes(x=iterations,y=costs)) + geom_point() + geom_line(color="blue") +
 ggtitle("Costs vs number of epochs") + xlab("No of epochs") + ylab("Cost")

5.1c. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Adam – Octave

source("DL7functions.m")
load('./mnist/mnist.txt.gz'); 
#Create a random permutatation from 1024
permutation = randperm(1024);
disp(length(permutation));

# Use this 1024 as the batch
X=trainX(permutation,:);
Y=trainY(permutation,:);
# Set layer dimensions
layersDimensions=[784, 15, 9, 10];

# Note the high value for epsilon. 
#Otherwise GD with Adam does not seem to converge   
# Perform SGD with Adam         
[weights biases costs]=L_Layer_DeepModel_SGD(X', Y', layersDimensions,
                       hiddenActivationFunc='relu', 
                       outputActivationFunc="softmax",
                       learningRate = 0.1,
                       lrDecay=false, 
                       decayRate=1,
                       lambd=0,
                       keep_prob=1,
                       optimizer="adam",
                       beta=0.9,
                       beta1=0.9,
                       beta2=0.9,
                       epsilon=100,
                       mini_batch_size = 512, 
                       num_epochs = 5000);
plotCostVsEpochs(5000,costs)

Conclusion: In this post I discuss and implement several Stochastic Gradient Descent optimization methods. The implementation of these methods enhance my already existing generic L-Layer Deep Learning Network implementation in vectorized Python, R and Octave, which I had discussed in the previous post in this series on Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave. Check it out, if you haven’t already. As already mentioned the code for this post can be cloned/forked from Github at DeepLearning-Part7

Watch this space! I’ll be back!

Also see
1.My book ‘Practical Machine Learning with R and Python’ on Amazon
2. Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 3
3. Experiments with deblurring using OpenCV
3. Design Principles of Scalable, Distributed Systems
4. Natural language processing: What would Shakespeare say?
5. yorkr crashes the IPL party! – Part 3!
6. cricketr flexes new muscles: The final analysis

To see all post click Index of posts