GooglyPlusPlus: Computing T20 player’s Win Probability Contribution

In this post, I compute each batsman’s or bowler’s Win Probability Contribution (WPC) in a T20 match. This metric captures by how much the player (batsman or bowler) changed/impacted the Win Probability of the T20 match. For this computation I use my machine learning models, I had created earlier, which predicts the ball-by-ball win probability as the T20 match progresses through the 2 innings of the match.

In the picture snippet below, you can see how the win probability changes ball-by-ball for each batsman for a T20 match between CSK vs LSG- 31 Mar 2022

In my previous posts I had created several Machine Learning models. In order to compute the player’s Win Probability contribution in this post, I have used the following ML models

The batsman’s or bowler’s win probability contribution changes ball-by=ball. The player’s contribution is calculated as the difference in win probability when the batsman faces the 1st ball in his innings and the last ball either when is out or the innings comes to an end. If the difference is +ve the the player has had a positive impact, and likewise for negative contribution. Similarly, for a bowler, it is the win probability when he/she comes into bowl till, the last delivery he/she bowls

Note: The Win Probability Contribution does not have any relation to the how much runs or at what strike rate the batsman scored the runs. Rather the model computes different win probability for each player, based on his/her embedding, the ball in the innings and six other feature vectors like runs, run rate, runsMomentum etc. These values change for every ball as seen in the table above. Also, this is not continuous. The 2 ML models determine the Win Probability for a specific player, ball and the context in the match.

This metric is similar to Win Probability Added (WPA) used in Sabermetrics for baseball. Here is the definition of WPA from Fangraphs “Win Probability Added (WPA) captures the change in Win Expectancy from one plate appearance to the next and credits or debits the player based on how much their action increased their team’s odds of winning.” This article in Fangraphs explains in detail how this computation is done.

In this post I have added 4 new function to my R package yorkr.

  • batsmanWinProbLR – batsman’s win probability contribution based on glmnet (Logistic Regression)
  • bowlerWinProbLR – bowler’s win probability contribution based on glmnet (Logistic Regression)
  • batsmanWinProbDL – batsman’s win probability contribution based on Deep Learning Model
  • bowlerWinProbDL – bowlerWinProbLR – bowler’s win probability contribution based on Deep Learning

Hence there are 4 additional features in GooglyPlusPlus based on the above 4 functions. In addition I have also updated

-winProbLR (overLap) function to include the names of batsman when they come to bat and when they get out or the innings comes to an end, based on Logistic Regression

-winProbDL(overLap) function to include the names of batsman when they come to bat and when they get out based on Deep Learning

Hence there are 6 new features in this version of GooglyPlusPlus.

Note: All these new 6 features are available for all 9 formats of T20 in GooglyPlusPlus namely

a) IPL b) BBL c) NTB d) PSL e) Intl, T20 (men) f) Intl. T20 (women) g) WBB h) CSL i) SSM

Check out the latest version of GooglyPlusPlus at gpp2023-2

Note: The data for GooglyPlusPlus comes from Cricsheet and the Shiny app is based on my R package yorkr

A) Chennai SuperKings vs Delhi Capitals – 04 Oct 2021

To understand Win Probability Contribution better let us look at Chennai Super Kings vs Delhi Capitals match on 04 Oct 2021

This was closely fought match with fortunes swinging wildly. If we take a look at the Worm wicket chart of this match

a) Worm Wicket chartCSK vs DC – 04 Oct 2021

Delhi Capitals finally win the match

b) Win Probability Logistic Regression (side-by-side) – CSK vs DC – 4 Oct 2021

Plotting how win probability changes over the course of the match using Logistic Regression Model

In this match Delhi Capitals won. The batting scorecard of Delhi Capitals

c) Batting Scorecard of Delhi Capitals – CSK vs DC – 4 Oct 2021

d) Win Probability Logistic Regression (Overlapping) – CSK vs DC – 4 Oct 2021

The Win Probability LR (overlapping) shows the probability function of both teams superimposed over one another. The plot includes when a batsman came into to play and when he got out. This is for both teams. This looks a little noisy, but there is a way to selectively display the change in Win Probability for each team. This can be done , by clicking the 3 arrows (orange or blue) from top to bottom. First double-click the team CSK or DC, then click the next 2 items (blue,red or black,grey) Sorry the legends don’t match the colors! 😦

Below we can see how the win probability changed for Delhi Capitals during their innings, as batsmen came into to play. See below

e) Batsman Win Probability contribution:DC – CSK vs DC – 4 Oct 2021

Computing the individual batsman’s Win Contribution and plotting we have. Hetmeyer has a higher Win Probability contribution than Shikhar Dhawan depsite scoring fewer runs

f) Bowler’s Win Probability contribution :CSK – CSK vs DC – 4 Oct 2021

We can also check the Win Probability of the bowlers. So for e.g the CSK bowlers and which bowlers had the most impact. Moeen Ali has the least impact in this match

B) Intl. T20 (men) Australia vs India – 25 Sep 2022

a) Worm wicket chart – Australia vs India – 25 Sep 2022

This was another close match in which India won with the penultimate ball

b) Win Probability based on Deep Learning model (side-by-side) – Australia vs India – 25 Sep 2022

c) Win Probability based on Deep Learning model (overlapping) – Australia vs India – 25 Sep 2022

The plot below shows how the Win Probability of the teams varied across the 20 overs. The 2 Win Probability distributions are superimposed over each other

d) Batsman Win Probability Contribution : IndiaAustralia vs India – 25 Sep 2022

Selectively choosing the India Win Probability plot by double-clicking legend ‘India’ on the right , followed by single click of black, grey legend we have

We see that Kohli, Suryakumar Yadav have good contribution to the Win Probability

e) Plotting the Runs vs Strike Rate:India – Australia vs India – 25 Sep 2022

f) Batsman’s Win Probability Contribution- Australia vs India – 25 Sep 2022

Finally plotting the Batsman’s Win Probability Contribution

Interestingly, Kohli has a greater Win Probability Contribution than SKY, though SKY scored more runs at a better strike rate. As mentioned above, the Win Probability is context dependent and also depends on past performances of the player (batsman, bowler)

Finally let us look at

C) India vs England Intll T20 Women (11 July 2021)

a) Worm wicket chart – India vs England Intl. T20 Women (11 July 2021)

India won this T20 match by 8 runs

b) Win Probability using the Logistic Regression Model – India vs England Intl. T20 Women (11 July 2021)

c) Win Probability with the DL model – India vs England Intl. T20 Women (11 July 2021)

d) Bowler Win Probability Contribution with the LR model India vs England Intl. T20 Women (11 July 2021)

e) Bowler Win Contribution with the DL model India vs England Intl. T20 Women (11 July 2021)

Go ahead and try out the latest version of GooglyPlusPlus

Also see my other posts

  1. Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 8
  2. A method to crowd source pothole marking on (Indian) roads
  3. Big Data 7: yorkr waltzes with Apache NiFi
  4. Practical Machine Learning with R and Python – Part 6
  5. Introducing cricpy:A python package to analyze performances of cricketers
  6. Revisiting World Bank data analysis with WDI and gVisMotionChart
  7. Literacy in India – A deepR dive
  8. Cricketr learns new tricks : Performs fine-grained analysis of players
  9. Presentation on “Intelligent Networks, CAMEL protocol, services & applications”
  10. Adventures in LogParser, HTA and charts

To see all posts click Index of posts

GooglyPlusPlus: Win Probability using Deep Learning and player embeddings

In my last post ‘GooglyPlusPlus now with Win Probability Analysis for all T20 matches‘ I had discussed the performance of my ML models, created with and without player embeddings, in computing the Win Probability of T20 matches. With batsman & bowler embeddings I got much better performance than without the embeddings

  • glmnet – Accuracy – 0.73
  • Random Forest (RF) – Accuracy – 0.92

While the Random Forest gave excellent accuracy, it was bulky and also took an unusually long time to predict the Win Probability of a single T20 match. The above 2 ML models were built using R’s Tidymodels. glmnet was fast, but I wanted to see if I could create a ML model that was better, lighter and faster. I had initially tried to use Tensorflow, Keras in Python but then abandoned it, since I did not know how to port the Deep Learning model to R and use in my app GooglyPlusPlus.

But later, since I was stuck with a bulky Random Forest model, I decided to again explore options for saving the Keras Deep Learning model and loading it in R. I found out that saving the model as .h5, we can load it in R and use it for predictions. Hence, I rebuilt a Deep Learning model using Keras, Python with player embeddings and I got excellent performance. The DL model was light and had an accuracy 0.8639 with an ROC_AUC of 0.964 which was great!

GooglyPlusPlus uses data from Cricsheet and is based on my R package yorkr

You can try out this latest version of GooglyPlusPlus at gpp2023-1

Here are the steps

A. Build a Keras Deep Learning model

a. Import necessary packages

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from zipfile import ZipFile
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow import keras
from tensorflow.keras import layers
from tensorflow.keras import regularizers
from pathlib import Path
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

b, Upload the data of all 9 T20 leagues (BBL, CPL, IPL, T20 (men) , T20(women), NTB, CPL, SSM, WBB)

# Read all T20 leagues 
print("Shape of dataframe=",df1.shape)

# Create training and test data set
train_dataset = df1.sample(frac=0.8,random_state=0)
test_dataset = df1.drop(train_dataset.index)
train_dataset1 = train_dataset[['batsmanIdx','bowlerIdx','ballNum','ballsRemaining','runs','runRate','numWickets','runsMomentum','perfIndex']]
test_dataset1 = test_dataset[['batsmanIdx','bowlerIdx','ballNum','ballsRemaining','runs','runRate','numWickets','runsMomentum','perfIndex']]

# Set the target data
train_labels = train_dataset.pop('isWinner')
test_labels = test_dataset.pop('isWinner')


c. Create a Deep Learning ML model using batsman & bowler embeddings

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from keras.layers import Input, Embedding, Flatten, Dense
from keras.models import Model
from keras.layers import Input, Embedding, Flatten, Dense, Reshape, Concatenate, Dropout
from keras.models import Model

# Set seed

# create input layers for each of the predictors
batsmanIdx_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='batsmanIdx')
bowlerIdx_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='bowlerIdx')
ballNum_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='ballNum')
ballsRemaining_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='ballsRemaining')
runs_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='runs')
runRate_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='runRate')
numWickets_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='numWickets')
runsMomentum_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='runsMomentum')
perfIndex_input = Input(shape=(1,), name='perfIndex')

# Set the embedding size as the 4th root of unique batsmen, bowlers
embedding_size_bat = no_of_unique_batman ** (1/4)
embedding_size_bwl = no_of_unique_bowler ** (1/4)

# create embedding layer for the categorical predictor
batsmanIdx_embedding = Embedding(input_dim=no_of_unique_batman+1, output_dim=16,input_length=1)(batsmanIdx_input)
batsmanIdx_flatten = Flatten()(batsmanIdx_embedding)
bowlerIdx_embedding = Embedding(input_dim=no_of_unique_bowler+1, output_dim=16,input_length=1)(bowlerIdx_input)
bowlerIdx_flatten = Flatten()(bowlerIdx_embedding)

# concatenate all the predictors
x = keras.layers.concatenate([batsmanIdx_flatten,bowlerIdx_flatten, ballNum_input, ballsRemaining_input, runs_input, runRate_input, numWickets_input, runsMomentum_input, perfIndex_input])

# add hidden layers
# Use dropouts for regularisation
x = Dense(64, activation='relu')(x)
x = Dropout(0.1)(x)
x = Dense(32, activation='relu')(x)
x = Dropout(0.1)(x)
x = Dense(16, activation='relu')(x)
x = Dropout(0.1)(x)
x = Dense(8, activation='relu')(x)
x = Dropout(0.1)(x)

# add output layer
output = Dense(1, activation='sigmoid', name='output')(x)

# create a DL model
model = Model(inputs=[batsmanIdx_input,bowlerIdx_input, ballNum_input, ballsRemaining_input, runs_input, runRate_input, numWickets_input, runsMomentum_input, perfIndex_input], outputs=output)

# compile model
optimizer=keras.optimizers.Adam(learning_rate=.01, beta_1=0.9, beta_2=0.999, epsilon=1e-07, decay=0.0, amsgrad=True)

model.compile(optimizer=optimizer, loss='binary_crossentropy', metrics=['accuracy'])

# train the model[train_dataset1['batsmanIdx'],train_dataset1['bowlerIdx'],train_dataset1['ballNum'],train_dataset1['ballsRemaining'],train_dataset1['runs'],
           train_dataset1['runRate'],train_dataset1['numWickets'],train_dataset1['runsMomentum'],train_dataset1['perfIndex']], train_labels, epochs=40, batch_size=1024,
          validation_data = ([test_dataset1['batsmanIdx'],test_dataset1['bowlerIdx'],test_dataset1['ballNum'],test_dataset1['ballsRemaining'],test_dataset1['runs'],
           test_dataset1['runRate'],test_dataset1['numWickets'],test_dataset1['runsMomentum'],test_dataset1['perfIndex']],test_labels), verbose=1)

plt.title("model loss")
plt.legend(["train", "test"], loc="upper left")

Model: "model_5"
 Layer (type)                   Output Shape         Param #     Connected to                     
 batsmanIdx (InputLayer)        [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 bowlerIdx (InputLayer)         [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 embedding_10 (Embedding)       (None, 1, 16)        75888       ['batsmanIdx[0][0]']             
 embedding_11 (Embedding)       (None, 1, 16)        55808       ['bowlerIdx[0][0]']              
 flatten_10 (Flatten)           (None, 16)           0           ['embedding_10[0][0]']           
 flatten_11 (Flatten)           (None, 16)           0           ['embedding_11[0][0]']           
 ballNum (InputLayer)           [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 ballsRemaining (InputLayer)    [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 runs (InputLayer)              [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 runRate (InputLayer)           [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 numWickets (InputLayer)        [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 runsMomentum (InputLayer)      [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 perfIndex (InputLayer)         [(None, 1)]          0           []                               
 concatenate_5 (Concatenate)    (None, 39)           0           ['flatten_10[0][0]',             
 dense_19 (Dense)               (None, 64)           2560        ['concatenate_5[0][0]']          
 dropout_19 (Dropout)           (None, 64)           0           ['dense_19[0][0]']               
 dense_20 (Dense)               (None, 32)           2080        ['dropout_19[0][0]']             
 dropout_20 (Dropout)           (None, 32)           0           ['dense_20[0][0]']               
 dense_21 (Dense)               (None, 16)           528         ['dropout_20[0][0]']             
 dropout_21 (Dropout)           (None, 16)           0           ['dense_21[0][0]']               
 dense_22 (Dense)               (None, 8)            136         ['dropout_21[0][0]']             
 dropout_22 (Dropout)           (None, 8)            0           ['dense_22[0][0]']               
 output (Dense)                 (None, 1)            9           ['dropout_22[0][0]']             
Total params: 137,009
Trainable params: 137,009
Non-trainable params: 0
Epoch 1/40
937/937 [==============================] - 11s 10ms/step - loss: 0.5683 - accuracy: 0.6968 - val_loss: 0.4480 - val_accuracy: 0.7708
Epoch 2/40
937/937 [==============================] - 9s 10ms/step - loss: 0.4477 - accuracy: 0.7721 - val_loss: 0.4305 - val_accuracy: 0.7833
Epoch 3/40
937/937 [==============================] - 9s 10ms/step - loss: 0.4229 - accuracy: 0.7832 - val_loss: 0.3984 - val_accuracy: 0.7936
937/937 [==============================] - 10s 10ms/step - loss: 0.2909 - accuracy: 0.8627 - val_loss: 0.2943 - val_accuracy: 0.8613
Epoch 38/40
937/937 [==============================] - 10s 10ms/step - loss: 0.2892 - accuracy: 0.8633 - val_loss: 0.2933 - val_accuracy: 0.8621
Epoch 39/40
937/937 [==============================] - 10s 10ms/step - loss: 0.2889 - accuracy: 0.8638 - val_loss: 0.2941 - val_accuracy: 0.8620
Epoch 40/40
937/937 [==============================] - 10s 11ms/step - loss: 0.2886 - accuracy: 0.8639 - val_loss: 0.2929 - val_accuracy: 0.8621

d. Compute and plot the ROC-AUC for the above model

from sklearn.metrics import roc_curve

# Select a random sample set
train = df1.sample(frac=0.9,random_state=0)
test = df1.drop(train_dataset.index)
test_dataset1 = test[['batsmanIdx','bowlerIdx','ballNum','ballsRemaining','runs','runRate','numWickets','runsMomentum','perfIndex']]
test_labels = test.pop('isWinner')

# Compute the predicted values
y_pred_keras = model.predict([test_dataset1['batsmanIdx'],test_dataset1['bowlerIdx'],test_dataset1['ballNum'],test_dataset1['ballsRemaining'],test_dataset1['runs'],

# Compute TPR & FPR
fpr_keras, tpr_keras, thresholds_keras = roc_curve(test_labels, y_pred_keras)

fpr_keras, tpr_keras, thresholds_keras = roc_curve(test_labels, y_pred_keras)
from sklearn.metrics import auc

# Plot the Area Under the Curve (AUC)
auc_keras = auc(fpr_keras, tpr_keras)
plt.plot([0, 1], [0, 1], 'k--')
plt.plot(fpr_keras, tpr_keras, label='Keras (area = {:.3f})'.format(auc_keras))
plt.xlabel('False positive rate')
plt.ylabel('True positive rate')
plt.title('ROC curve')

The ROC_AUC for the Deep Learning Model is 0.946 as seen below

e. Save the Keras model for use in Python

from keras.models import Model"wpDL.h5")

f. Load the model in R using rhdf5 package for use in GooglyPlusPlus

dl_model <- load_model_hdf5('wpDL.h5')

This was a huge success for me to be able to create the Deep Learning model in Python and use it in my Shiny app GooglyPlusPlus. The Deep Learning Keras model is light-weight and extremely fast.

The Deep Learning model has now been integrated into GooglyPlusPlus. Now you can check the Win Probability using both a) glmnet (Logistic Regression with lasso regularisation) b) Keras Deep Learning model with dropouts as regularisation

In addition I have created 2 features based on Win Probability (WP)

i) Win Probability (Side-by-side – Plot(interactive) : With this functionality the 1st and 2nd innings will be side-by-side. When the 1st innings is played by team 1, the Win Probability of team 2 = 100 – WP (team1). Similarly, when the 2nd innings is being played by team 2, the Win Probability of team1 = 100 – WP (team 2)

ii) Win Probability (Overlapping) – Plot (static): With this functionality the Win Probabilities of both team1(1st innings) & team 2 (2nd innings) are displayed overlapping, so that we can see how the probabilities vary ball-by-ball.

Note: Since the same UI is used for all match functions I had to re-use the Plot(interactive) and Plot(static) radio buttons for Win Probability (Side-by-side) and Win Probability(Overlapping) respectively

Here are screenshots using both ML models with both functionality for some random matches

B) ICC T20 Men World Cup – Netherland-South Africa- 2022-11-06

i) Match Worm wicket chart

ii) Win Probability with LR (Side-by-Side- Plot(interactive))

iii) Win Probability LR (Overlapping- Plot(static))

iv) Win Probability Deep Learning (Side-by-side – Plot(interactive)

In the 213th ball of the innings South Africa was slightly ahead of Netherlands. After that they crashed and burned!

v) Win Probability Deep Learning (Overlapping – Plot (static)

It can be seen that in the 94th ball of both innings South Africa was ahead of Netherlands before the eventual slump.

C) Intl. T20 (Women) India – New Zealand – 2020 – 02 – 27

Here is an interesting match between India and New Zealand T20 Women’s teams. NZ successfully chased the India’s total in a wildly swinging fortunes. See the charts below

i) Match Worm Wicket chart

ii) Win Probability with LR (Side-by-side – Plot (interactive)

iii) Win Probability with LR (Overlapping – Plot (static)

iv) Win Probability with DL model (Side-by-side – Plot (interactive))

v) Win Probability with DL model (Overlapping – Plot (static))

The above functionality in plotting the Win Probability using LR or DL with both options (Side-by-side or Overlapping) is available for all 9 T20 leagues currently supported by GooglyPlusPlus.

Go ahead and give gpp2023-1 a try!!!

Do also check out my other posts’

  1. Deep Learning from first principles in Python, R and Octave – Part 7
  2. Big Data 6: The T20 Dance of Apache NiFi and yorkpy
  3. Latency, throughput implications for the Cloud
  4. Design Principles of Scalable, Distributed Systems
  5. Cricpy adds team analytics to its arsenal!!
  6. Analyzing performances of cricketers using cricketr template
  7. Modeling a Car in Android
  8. Using Linear Programming (LP) for optimizing bowling change or batting lineup in T20 cricket
  9. Introducing QCSimulator: A 5-qubit quantum computing simulator in R
  10. Experiments with deblurring using OpenCV
  11. Using embeddings, collaborative filtering with Deep Learning to analyse T20 players

To see all posts click Index of posts